WCFS - Western Center for Food Safety

Soil Amendments

Framework Document

  • Harris, L.J., E. Berry, T. Blessington, M. Erickson, M. Jay-Russell, X. Jiang, K. Killinger, F.C. Michel, P. Millner, M. Sharma, T.V. Suslow, L. Wang, R.W. Worobo. 2012. A framework for developing research protocols for evaluation of microbial hazards and controls during production
    that pertain to the use of untreated biological soil amendments of animal origin for produce that may be consumed raw. The trial follows the biological soil amendment framework document posted published open access in the Journal of Food Protection.


  • A comprehensive list of references pertaining to domesticated animal manure from “A Systems Approach to Food Safety" website (University of Georgia and USDA): http://www.ugacfs.org/producesafety/Pages/Basics/DomesticatedAnimals.html
  • Annotated Bibliography for Pathogen Survival in Soil Amended with Raw Manure.  (Marilyn Erickson, University of Georgia, PDF 212 KB)
  • Dufour, A., ed., et al.  Animal Waste, Water Quality and Human Health; IWA Publishing: London, U.K., 2012.  (Free downloadable copy)
    From WHO website – “Prepared with contributions from a group of international experts, this book considers microbial contamination from domestic animal and bird sources and explores the health hazards associated with this microbial contamination and approaches to protecting public health? This book will be of interest to regulators with responsibility for recreational waters, drinking water quality and water reuse; policymakers working in water quality, public health and agriculture; decision makers responsible for livestock management; and scientists and practitioners concerned with many affected subjects.”